Most refrigerants used for air conditioning contribute to global warming, and many also deplete the ozone layer.CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs are potent greenhouse gases when leaked to the atmosphere.
A single-hose unit uses air from within the room to cool its condenser, and then vents it outside. This air is replaced by hot air from outside or other rooms (due to the negative pressure inside the room), thus reducing the unit's overall efficiency.
A modification to the perpendicular flow of the typical HCHE involves the replacement of shell with another coiled tube, allowing the two fluids to flow parallel to one another, and which requires the use of different design calculations. These are the Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE), which may refer to a helical (coiled) tube configuration, more generally